The Commission’s objectives with the Regulation are twofold: to promote the development of AI technologies and harness their potential benefits, while also protecting individuals against potential threats to their health, safety, and fundamental rights posed by AI systems. To that end, the Commission proposal focuses primarily on AI systems identified as “high-risk,” but also prohibits three AI practices and imposes transparency obligations on providers of certain non-high-risk AI systems as well. Notably, it would impose significant administrative costs on high-risk AI systems of around 10 percent of the underlying value, based on compliance, oversight, and verification costs. This blog highlights several key aspects of the proposal.
Definition of AI systems (Article 3)
The Regulation defines AI systems as software using one or more “techniques and approaches” and which “generate outputs such as content, predictions, recommendations or decisions influencing the environments they interact with.” These techniques and approaches, set out in Annex I of the Regulation, include machine learning approaches; logic- and knowledge- based approaches; and “statistical approaches, Bayesian estimation, [and] search and optimisation methods.” Given the breadth of these terms, a wide range of technologies could fall within scope of the Regulation’s definition of AI.
Territorial scope (Article 2)
The Regulation would apply not only to AI systems placed on the market, put into service, or used in the EU, but also to systems, wherever marketed or used, “where the output produced by the system is used in the Union.” The latter requirement could raise compliance challenges for suppliers of AI systems, who might not always know, or be able to control, where their customers will use the outputs generated by their systems.
Prohibited AI practices (Article 5)
The Regulation prohibits certain AI practices that are deemed to pose an unacceptable level of risk and contravene EU values. These practices include the provision or use of AI systems that either deploy subliminal techniques (beyond a person’s consciousness) to materially distort a person’s behaviour, or exploit the vulnerabilities of specific groups (such as children or persons with disabilities), in both cases where physical or psychological harm is likely to occur. The Regulation also prohibits public authorities from using AI systems for “social scoring”, where this leads to detrimental or unfavourable treatment in social contexts unrelated to the contexts in which the data was generated, or is otherwise unjustified or disproportionate. Finally, the Regulation bans law enforcement from using ‘real-time’ remote biometric identification systems in publicly accessible spaces, subject to certain limited exceptions (such as searching for crime victims, preventing threat to life or safety, or criminal law enforcement for significant offenses).
Classification of high-risk AI systems (Article 6)
The Regulation classifies certain AI systems as inherently high-risk. These systems, enumerated exhaustively in Annexes II and III of the Regulation, include AI systems that are, or are safety components of, products already subject to EU harmonised safety regimes (e.g., machinery; toys; elevators; medical devices, etc.); products covered by other EU legislation (e.g., motor vehicles; civil aviation; marine equipment, etc.); and AI systems that are used in certain specific contexts or for specific purposes (e.g.; for biometric identification; for educational or vocational training, etc.).
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