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Abby Rickeman

Abby Rickeman is an associate in the firm’s Washington, DC office. She practices in the employment, institutional culture and social responsibility, and public policy groups. She also maintains an active pro bono practice.

With the 2024 election rapidly approaching, the Biden Administration must race to finalize proposed agency actions as early as mid-May to avoid facing possible nullification if the Republican Party controls both chambers of Congress and the White House next year. 

The Congressional Review Act (CRA) allows Congress to overturn rules issued by the Executive Branch by enacting a joint resolution of disapproval that cancels the rule and prohibits the agency from issuing a rule that is “substantially the same.”  One of the CRA’s most unique features—a 60-day “lookback period”—allows the next Congress 60 days to review rules issued near the end of the last Congress.  This means that the Administration must finalize and publish certain rules long before Election Day to avoid being eligible for CRA review in the new year.

Overview of the CRA

The CRA requires federal agencies to submit all final rules to Congress before the rule may take effect.  It provides the House with 60 legislative days and the Senate with 60 session days to introduce a joint resolution of disapproval to overturn the rule.  This 60-day period counts every calendar day, including weekends and holidays, but excludes days that either chamber is out of session for more than three days pursuant to an adjournment resolution.  In the Senate, a joint resolution of disapproval receives only limited debate and may not be filibustered.  Moreover, if it has been more than 20 calendar days since Congress received a final rule and a joint resolution has not been reported out of the appropriate committee, a group of 30 Senators can file a petition to force a floor vote on the petition.   

If a CRA resolution receives a simple majority in both chambers and is signed by the President, or if Congress overrides a presidential veto, the rule cannot go into effect and is treated “as though such rule had never taken effect.”[1]  The agency is also barred from reissuing a rule that is “substantially the same,” unless authorized by future law.[2]    

Election Year Threat: CRA Lookback Period

These procedures pose special challenges for federal agencies in an election year.  If a rule is submitted to Congress within 60 days before adjournment, the CRA’s lookback provision allows the 60-day timeline to introduce a CRA resolution to start over in the next session of Congress.

This procedure ultimately requires the current administration to assess the threat of a CRA resolution against certain rules and determine whether to issue the rule safely before the deadline or risk a potential CRA challenge. Continue Reading Congressional Review Act Threat Looms Over Biden Administration Rulemakings

Today, Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-NY) unveiled a new bipartisan proposal to develop legislation to promote and regulate artificial intelligence. In a speech at the Center for Strategic & International Studies, Leader Schumer remarked: “[W]ith AI, we cannot be ostriches sticking our heads in the sand. The question is: what role [do] Congress